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Sunday, September 11, 2011

TOPOMAX: NEW ARTICLE IN CEPHALGIA DESCRIBES HOW TOPIRAMATE WORKS VIA THE TRIGEMINOTHALAMIC PATHWAY THE SAME PATHWAY NEUROMUSCULAR DENTISTRY EFFECTS.

IT HAS BECOME A COMMON BELIEF THAT THE KEY TO MIGRAINE TREATMENT IS TO EFFECT THE TRIGEMINAL NERVOUS SYSTEM BY CHANGING CHEMICAL ACTIONS ON RECEPTORS AS THE ARTICLE BELOW SHOWS. NEUROMUSCULAR DENTISTRY PREVENTS AND TREATS MIGRAINES IN A SIMILAR MANNER BY CHANGING THE NEUROEXCITABILITY OF THE RECEPTORS AND CHANGING CHEMICALS PRODUCED IN THE BRAIN. TMJ disorders (TMD) have an extreme correlation to migraines and tension headaches.

IT SHOULD ALWAYS BE REMEMBERED THAT THE BRAIN IS ACTUALLY A BIOLOGICAL COMPUTER WITH INPUT AND OUTPUT ie nervous input and output.

Neuromuscular Dentistry changes how the brain work by changing the input to the Trigeminal Nervous System. Approximately 50% of the input to the brain is from the Trigeminal Nerve. The Trigeminal Nerve is often called the Dentist's nerve because most of the input to the brain frm the Trigeminal Nerve is from the teeth, periodontal ligaments, jaw muscles, jaw joints, tensor of the eardrum,lining of the sinuses and other dental structures. An Excellent Article in Cephalgia explains how exercise can prevent migraines. This is a similar application of how this nervous system works.

Neuromuscular Dentistry has an enormous effect on second and third order neurons as does topiramate. The article specifically states "The effects of ........topiramate on trigeminovascular activation of second- and third-order neurons in the trigeminothalamic pathway were characterized" The article states in its conclusion that "data demonstrate for the first time that topiramate modulates trigeminovascular transmission within the trigeminothalamic pathway" These are the exact same pathways where Neuromuscular Dentistry can have its greatest effects.

Migraines and Tension Headaches including Chronic Daily Headaches are frequently the result of nociceptive input into the Trigeminal Nervous System. In computer lingo, Garbage In---Garbage Out. Garbage out is chronic pain due to changes in brain chemistry that are directly related to nervous input to the brain through the Trigeminal Nervous System.

Excellent Proof of this concept can be found in "Cephalalgia. 2011 Sep 2.
Exercise as migraine prophylaxis: A randomized study using relaxation and topiramate as controls. The article concludes that "Exercise may be an option for the prophylactic treatment of migraine in patients who do not benefit from or do not want to take daily medication." Exercise changes the input to the brain though it is not as specific to the trigeminal nerve as Neuromuscular Dentistry.


Cephalalgia. 2011 Sep 5. [Epub ahead of print]
Topiramate in the treatment of migraine: A kainate (glutamate) receptor antagonist within the trigeminothalamic pathway.
Andreou AP, Goadsby PJ.
Source

Headache Group, University of California, USA.
Abstract

Background: The development of new agents for the preventive treatment of migraine is the greatest unmet need in the therapeutics of primary headaches. Topiramate, an anticonvulsant drug, is an effective anti-migraine preventive whose mechanism of action is not fully elucidated. Since glutamate plays a major role in migraine pathophysiology, the potential action of topiramate through glutamatergic mechanisms is of considerable interest. Methods: Recordings of neurons in the trigeminocervical complex (TCC) and the ventroposteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM) of anesthetized rats were made using electrophysiological techniques. The effects of intravenous or microiontophorezed topiramate on trigeminovascular activation of second- and third-order neurons in the trigeminothalamic pathway were characterized. The potential interactions of topiramate with the ionotropic glutamate receptors were studied using microiontophoresis. Results: Both intravenous and microiontophorized topiramate significantly inhibited trigeminovascular activity in the TCC and VPM. In both nuclei microiontophoretic application of topiramate significantly attenuated kainate receptor-evoked firing but had no effect on N-methyl-d-aspartic acid or α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptor activation. Conclusion: The data demonstrate for the first time that topiramate modulates trigeminovascular transmission within the trigeminothalamic pathway with the kainate receptor being a potential target. Understanding the mechanism of action of topiramate may help in the design of new medications for migraine prevention, with the data pointing to glutamate-kainate receptors as a fruitful target to pursue.

PMID:
21893557
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Cephalalgia. 2011 Sep 2. [Epub ahead of print]
Exercise as migraine prophylaxis: A randomized study using relaxation and topiramate as controls.
Varkey E, Cider A, Carlsson J, Linde M.
Source

University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
Abstract

Aim: Scientific evidence regarding exercise in migraine prophylaxis is required. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the effects of exercise in migraine prevention. Methods: In a randomized, controlled trial of adults with migraine, exercising for 40 minutes three times a week was compared to relaxation according to a recorded programme or daily topiramate use, which was slowly increased to the individual's highest tolerable dose (maximum 200 mg/day). The treatment period lasted for 3 months, and migraine status, quality of life, level of physical activity, and oxygen uptake were evaluated. The primary efficacy variable was the mean reduction of the frequency of migraine attacks during the final month of treatment compared with the baseline. Results: Ninety-one patients were randomized and included in the intention-to-treat analysis. The primary efficacy variable showed a mean reduction of 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31-1.54) attacks in the exercise group, 0.83 (95% CI 0.22-1.45) attacks in the relaxation group, and 0.97 (95% CI 0.36-1.58) attacks in the topiramate group. No significant difference was observed between the groups (p = 0.95). Conclusion: Exercise may be an option for the prophylactic treatment of migraine in patients who do not benefit from or do not want to take daily medication.

PMID:
21890526
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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posted by Dr Shapira at 11:14 AM

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